Venture Knowledgist Quality Integration
MANAGING BUSINESS PROCESSES
Professional process approach is a great opportunity to all organizations
for enhancing business performance and realizing quality of management
in a modern way. This text highlights how to integrate process management
to be a seamless part of overall business management. The approach
presented here is a profound insight of innovative and comprehensive
process management. Also practical methodologies, e.g. for strategic
and operational process management, process documentation, and process
performance evaluation and improvement, are considered. This methodology
is applicable in all kinds of organizations, including private small
and big companies, public service providers, and third sector not-for-profit
organizations. The approach is based on practical experiences during
nearly 20 recent years in different kinds of organizations in different
Process management is a comprehensive business management issue and
it involves application of multidisciplinary principles and practices.
Historical development of process approach
Systematic process ideas were used already in the activities of ancient
societies thousands years ago. The process concept is also often referred
to in the cases of natural development. Statistical process control
started in 1920's at Western Electric Company by Walter Shewhart.
Through industrialization processes became an everyday concept in
so called process industry. From 1980's process methodology has been
used for computers' internal activities according to the structured
analysis and design technique (SADT). In a large scale and comprehensively,
however, business process approach has been used for the benefits
of business management for less than twenty years, and during that
time a lot of practical means have been developed for managing business
processes. In these approaches, especially learning from system theory
and system dynamics has been valuable. To the well-known international
standards ISO 9000 for ensuring and improving quality of management,
process concept was introduced in the 1990's.
Process concept and business management
Processes in general adhere to all kinds of activities or operations
made by people or automatic means. In fact, originally the process
concept just denotes any kind of productive doing. Basic activities
that exit in all organizations may be called as "elementary processes".
They typically include:
- Working for something
- Moving people, material, or information
- Interacting or communicating
When the elementary processes within an organization are linked with
achieving organization's business results, one may talk about business
processes. Different organizations may use different expressions for
these processes, e.g. basic, core, or key processes. Very often, however,
these different and not-standardized terms are confusing, and, in
fact, they are not really needed in practice. Normally it is enough
to use the concept "business process" only. Business processes
imply continuously running inter-linked business activities. Business
projects are singular processes for unique business tasks. Typically
business processes cross the borders of organizational units.
Organization's business processes and organizational structure are
orthogonal dimensions of management. Organization's overall business
performance is the result of managerial solutions both in processes
and structures. Naturally the structures should support the processes.
Structural questions of business processes have become an interesting
management issue in order to increase effectiveness and efficiency
of organizational operations. However, there are some cases where
structural aspects, e.g. organization charts and formal process diagrams,
have been harmfully overly emphasized in process management. Processes
should be the primary issue and structure a secondary one.
Major motivation in organizations for strengthening process-focus
in the development of business management is based on the following
- Focusing through the whole organization on customers and aiming
to fulfill customer-needs competitively
- Avoiding problems in company-internal organizational interfaces
and responsibilities: operating effectively and efficiently, "smoothly",
through the whole organization
- Developing human quality of individuals and teams more effectively
by projecting to the needs of real business process activities
- Enhancing process-innovations in addition to product innovations
- Getting benefits of real options from process-based investments
Due to its business significance, process management is a comprehensive
business management issue by its basic nature. Today, however, truly
effective and efficient process management implies radical changes
to the established management thinking and structures in many organizations.
General development of the process approach within an organization
starts typically from strong vertically organized functional business
units, organizational "silos", and with a clear need to
improve the effectiveness and efficiency and customer-focus through
horizontal streamlining of activities within the organization. The
rigid traditional functional structure of organizations is normally
originated from the old scientific management school. Challenge for
development means movement towards emphasis on horizontal business
processes for realizing products to the customers. Also needs of the
other stakeholders should be taken into consideration. During this
development the role of vertical functions is changing to competence
centers to support the business processes. This development is always
in practice a long-term development journey in organizations.
Organization-widely networked business
A comprehensive system of business processes covers the whole organization,
and practically all work in organization is done through processes.
Business systems consist of networks of interlinked business processes.
Thus, processes are the basis for the success and growth of enterprises.
All mutually value-adding or "Win-Win" interactions and
transactions between an organization and its stakeholders take place
through processes. Even the quality of public services and quality
of the society at large are originated in the processes of different
organizations within the society.
A four level business-infrastructure model is useful for managing
a comprehensive system of business processes within any organization.
This process framework consists of the following four business activity/management
levels that have remarkable importance in managing the organization
towards sustainable success:
- Organization level (the whole organization, e.g. a corporation or
business community): Establishing and maintaining the fundamental
and normative process insight, principles, visions, and general process
management methodology ("aiming at corporate-culture and general
normative basis for process approach within the whole organization")
- Business level: Establishing and managing the system of interlinked
business processes towards strategic targets of the different businesses
within the corporation ("aiming at a long term competitiveness
within strategic business areas")
- Operational level: Managing individual business processes in real
time ("operating effectively and efficiently just now and here")
- Individual personal and team level: Emphasizing the human commitment
and role in business processes ("aiming at process awareness
at large in the whole organization")
Detailed corporate-wide business system may be described by using
a business process framework. Typically that consists of four major
domains of business processes:
- Market processes: Organization's communication with the whole market
area, achieving new competitive products / solutions to the market,
and establishing product management
- Customer processes: Fulfilling individual customers' needs with
products and establishing high quality customer relationships
- Management processes: Enhancing business performance and ensuring
- Support processes: Providing for effective support to all business
All business processes of an organization take up their operational
positions within these domains. That means that within a business
there may typically be some 30 40 major business processes
all together. The business process structure is, however, always a
business dedicated issue. Those business processes that are directly
linked with external customers or other important stakeholders have
the primary importance.
Each of the organization's business processes consists hierarchically
of sub-processes, activities, and tasks.
Critical process chains within organization's business framework
are the chains of individual business processes, e.g. from-market-to-market
All business results are achieved through managing business processes.
A major challenge for top management is to convert a traditional vertically
emphasized and hierarchical functional organization into an approach
consistently and effectively strengthening horizontally interlinked
and interacting activities (i.e. business processes). That means that
top management's significant responsibilities include not only business
results but also how the work is done in business processes. They
should arrange prerequisites for effective and efficient process realization.
Thus, process management is an extension to the traditional management
school of management by objectives (MBO). Both strategic and operational
management level are involved in this approach, the strategic one
focusing on managing the network of inter-linked business processes
(i.e. the whole business system) and the operational one on managing
single processes and projects.
Process management as a management approach has a remarkable role
in both "getting better" (strategic change) and "earning
money" (operational run). Proved experiences demonstrate that
although process management is an incredibly simple thing, its implementation
seems very difficult because it always puts a strain on the organization's
customary practices of leadership. Development of the business processes
and their management is a long-term effort and should take into account
realities of business environments in question. Today truly effective
and efficient process management implies a radical change to the traditional
established management thinking and structures in organizations.
Strategic management process has a particular position among all
business processes. The whole process approach within an organization
is originated in decisions and measures taken in that process by the
business leaders of an organization.
Process management implies how the strategic and operational business
objectives are carried out through business processes. A good, well-known
and simple model for all kind managing including process management
is so called PDCA (Plan - Do - Check - Act) model. According to that
model business operations are managed by feedback through measurements.
There are in fact three PDCA loops:
a) The loop of control and corrective actions within a process
b) The loop of problem solving and prevention within a process
c) The loop of breakthrough improvements through innovative redesigning
and reengineering of the business processes or the whole network of
Management of the whole process network of a business includes traditional
responsibilities of the business management, e.g. using business plans,
action plans, business performance assessments, and regular business
reviews. It is essential, that the business system is understood here
especially as a network of business processes and not only as functional
units (organizational "silos"). The scope of managing individual
processes consists of process planning, control of the operation,
performance improvement, and quality assurance. Bases for a process
management are the process plan, process performance assessment (process
auditing), and monitoring process performance indicators.
Most practical means to support organization-wide management of business
- Process plan for defining each single business process (figure 1)
- Business process framework for establishing the whole system of
business processes within an organization
- Procedure document defining the principles, responsibilities, structures,
and practices being used for process management in an organization
Figure 1. Elements of a process plan
Products are outputs from business
Organizations may produce many kinds of products including:
- Simple commodities
- Hardware products
- Software products
- Complicated system products
- Processed materials
- Pure services
- Services with goods (materials)
From conceptual point of view the ISO 9000 standard definition of
a product is recommended. Product is defined as result of processes.
All products include both intended elements and also unintended elements.
Intended part of a product is aimed at fulfilling customers' needs
and expectations. Unintended elements are often harmful and therefore
should be avoided. These results are achieved by adequate process
Service means a product produced by activities at the interface between
supplier and customer, and by supplier's internal activities. Thus,
services are always produces by both supplier's and customer's processes.
All products include services. In fact, there never may be any product
without service-elements. In general, there are two categories of
services, those provides by human resources and those by automatic
means of the interface processes.
Satisfaction of the customer follows from the benefits or added-value
produced to the user by a product. Customer value is based on the
three major product elements (goods, human service, and mechanistic
or automatic service) and their overall characteristics and performance.
Depending on the composition of a product, the different elements
have different contribution to the customer value.
Achieving quality through managing
Management of business processes is definitely the most important
and practical subject matter in order to get quality happen in all
kinds of organizations. That is also emphasized by the well-known
and recognized ISO 9000 standards for quality of management.
Organizations' quality efforts aim at sustainable success and excellent
business performance in fulfilling the needs of all stakeholders.
The business leaders have the principal responsibility for quality
realization. All this is included in the general concept of quality
management (QM). Quality management equals, in fact, quality of management,
and in this context the role of business process management is crucial.
Quality integration is the principal strategy for an effective and
efficient quality management. It implies that all quality related
activities are embedded within normal business management activities.
Thus, according to process approach quality is in practice realized
through business processes, and quality management through managing
business processes. Quality integration means also that distinct quality
management systems are no more needed or not even justified. In fact,
they may be harmful. A real quality management system is just the
same as well-managed system of business processes.
Quality assurance (QA) is for creating and strengthening confidence
among organization's customers and it is in a natural way based on
the performance of business processes. Quality assurance is principally
related to communication between an organization and its customers
(figure 2). Quality assurance can be seen as a value-adding part (i.e.
a service-element) in company's products-offerings. The new e-business
process technology with effective interactive features creates radically
new cutting-edge solutions (e.g. "e-certificate") for quality
assurance. E-certificate consists of Internet site(s) or portal solution
providing for assurance that a product produced by an organization
conforms to an agreed standard or specification. It gives also an
opportunity to personalize and create partnership-dedicated efficient
solution with interactive extranet technology.
Figure 2. Quality assurance through business processes and innovative
QA services to the customer
Modern business environments and process
Today process management calls for responding to the realities of
the modern business environments and especially nowadays the needs
for managing variety and agility. E.g. the new e-business environments
require a more advanced methodology for process management than before.
There are three main categories regarding variableness in process
activities (figure 3):
Figure 3. Variety
modes of different complexity level and different requirements for
variety (degree of freedom). These different modes are relevant in
all practical business processes.
All of these categories are inherent in all business processes and
their activities. These categories differ from each others in the
degree of freedom that is characterizing the activity. Mechanistic
aspects are highly disciplined tasks, e.g. keeping delivery-deadlines
in the order-delivery process. Organic aspects relate e.g. to interactions
with the business partners. Dynamic aspects typically reflect spontaneous
human activities in on-time situations. Process management should
take into account that all these variableness modes and to be addressed
appropriately in a process network as a whole and in individual processes.
However, depending on the type and purpose of the process a certain
mode of activity may have a clear emphasis. These different modes
should also be taken into account in the process documentation. Process
automation with information systems helps typically only mechanistic
activities in processes. However, new interactive information technology
gives possibilities also for more flexible operations carried out
A key challenge to leaders and managers and to the process experts
is that managing feedback loop needs to be much faster than the business
system's (processes') response time.
Managing complexity is a requirement of every process, and it goes
beyond simplistic tools. Modern business environments require especially
understanding that organizations consist of complex responsive processes
of relating. Also interactions and transactions between different
organizations take place through this kind of processes. Managing
complex responsive business processes of relating includes three essential
- Business processes are processes of relating. That is to say that
all processes are always related to some other actor(s), e.g. other
processes, customers or other stakeholders, etc. These other actors
may be within the same organization or in other organizations. There
are always both intended and unintended relationships, potentially
even hostile actors.
- Business processes respond to the needs and expectations from the
other related actors. That is definitely the basic purpose of all
- Business processes are always complex because all details of needs
and expectations, process activities, or relating features cannot
be in full certainty defined or agreed. This aspect is particularly
related to the multifarious characteristics of the process activities
and related actors, especially due to human actions.
It is very easy to accept that really all business processes have
these features. This is also reason to the major problem of process
management. Management of the processes cannot be based only on explicit
information with 100% certainty or agreement:
- All processes include always some degree of risks on not fulfilling
all needs and expectations.
- Process activities or relating activities may develop towards chaos
- In fact, processes include many different kinds of activities. From
the management point of view, different activity categories may be
described with "Stacey matrix" presentation.
One single business process may include activities representing all
these different areas defined in the Stacey matrix. One simple management
approach is not sufficient to manage all differing features of a business
process if you are really striving for an excellent process performance.
Appropriate management actions should be selected based on the degree
of certainty and level of agreement on the issue in question.
An effective management of complex responsive process of relating
requires explicit consideration of the following three elements:
- Identity of the relating processes through identifying the set of
characteristics by which a process is definitively recognizable. In
practice that may be done by a systematic process plan. Process plan
also identifies activities and human / automatic actors within the
- Relationship of actors considering the level of agreement and degree
of certainty according to the Stacey's matrix. Also the balance and
level of Win / Win is important for relationship realization.
- Communication between actors that may be open, restricted, or fuzzy.
Of course completely closed communication cannot be a case of business
These aspects are essential when the operation of networked organizations
is considered where processes of different organizations are cooperating.
If the relating processes are not clearly identified (process plans),
the situation fall into pieces of interacting process-internal actors,
and even may develop towards chaos or anarchy.
People in business processes
A critical issue for process performance and process management is
the operation of individual human performers within processes, and
how they understand their roles in the process-scope and the overall
aims of the process they are involved with. There should not be any
conflicts between person's activities in a business process and his/her
internal mental process.
Process owner is the key person in managing operationally a business
process. In fact, there could be no process management without a process
owner. He/she is responsible for drafting the process plan to be accepted
by the management of the business.
One of the most difficult questions in practice is the clear understanding
of roles of the process owners and line managers. There is always
a potential risk of conflicting interests between them. Chances to
prevent and resolve these conflicts in an effective Win/Win-manner
depend basically on the clarity in business concept and targets, responsibility
definitions, procedures of compensation, rewarding, and incentives.
The role of business leader (e.g. a business unit director) for process
management consists of:
- Bearing accountability of the performance of the whole business
and taking strategic responsibility of the whole system of processes
of that business
- Supporting, e.g. relating to all necessary process resources needed
for running process operations and for continual improvement of process
- Acting as superior of the process owner, e.g. conducting performance
evaluation from the whole business point of view
Integrating process management with business management means that
business processes are operating naturally without any additional
or artificial tricks, procedures, or systems in natural and real operational
environments. This style of operating is fundamentally based on awareness
within the responsible resources and organization(s) at large. Process
awareness is most essential topic for realizing business process management
in practical cases. The awareness is not at all any simple thing.
It is a profound totality of physical, psychological, and philosophical
aspects of sensations, perceptions, ideas, attitudes, and feelings
related to individuals or groups having knowledge of the business
processes and their management, at any given time, or within a given
time span. In time dimension, developing of the knowledge and learning
become crucial aspects. It may be recognized different depth-levels
of intellectual behavior in knowledge and learning. Explicit knowledge,
e.g. documentation, is only a very minor part because most of the
knowledge is implicit (or tacit) in this context. There are always
also complex connections between consciousness and unconsciousness
(sub-consciousness). Situation is still more complicated when one
is considering possibilities of the collective consciousness and collective
In many organizations the full-fledged utilization of process management
towards business success is deficient as concepts, modes of thinking,
and practices including management tools and infrastructures have
not been properly internalized. Understanding the whole issue at hand
is, however, a prerequisite for its utilization. Good training and
coaching based on the company's own systematic process management
model provides a much faster way to understanding than an approach
based on trial and error. A superior result in the training is reached
through training provided by an internal as compared to an external
trainer. This leverage effect is manifold if the providers of such
coaching are the leaders of the company.
Very often today through traditional formal process related training
and education one can achieve only very basics of knowledge required
in practice. In order to avoid these problems one should approach
from separate training / education events or programs to continuous
learning process integrated with normal business process operations.
On-the-job learning offers cost-effective way to link learning to
the organizational needs and priorities both at operator and manager
levels. Organizational and personal learning are prerequisites for
enhancing process awareness and skills.
Modern learning environments are to facilitate effective and efficient
knowledge-intensive and networked learning activities. The aim of
the new approach in learning is to improve learning through improving
interactive communication, and building social knowledge within organizations.
These environments provide means for learning through improving interactive
and collaborative communication of management, and building social
knowledge and intelligence.
Information and knowledge in business
Business documentation is the traditional way to manage information
and knowledge in businesses and also in business processes. Documentation
should be a dynamic and high-value-adding activity. Documentation
is needed for achieving required business targets, for evaluating
the business system including its deployment and related results,
for realizing quality assurance for customers' confidence, and for
facilitating performance improvement.
Process documentation is an essential part of the whole business
management documentation. Process management procedure document is
the core document for a business integrated process management approach.
It describes organization's process management model as a whole and
refers to appropriate procedure documents for description of details.
Different principles, tasks, and responsibilities for process management
are described according to the corporate-wide process framework, and
revised as necessary.
Detailed process documents include process plans, procedure and method
documents, operational records, and training documents. The most important
documents for a particular process consist of process plan, process
environment description (i.e. linkages of the process to other processes
or actors), and process flow diagram of the major activities of the
Requirements for documentation and relating methodology originate
in strategic and operational needs of the business, and the different
user-groups, including process owner, process operators, process developers,
and associated IT experts developing IT support for processes. Consistency
of different needs of documentation is required. These documents also
fulfill the needs of quality management and quality assurance and
thus no distinct quality documents, e.g. quality manuals or procedure
documents, are needed any more.
Very often in business process approaches, especially quality professionals
have placed stress on documentation. Often they have referred to requirements
of ISO 9000 standards or quality award criteria. However, the real
requirements for documentation come only from business needs of the
processes, not from standards which present only guidance or general
Nowadays many human activities within business processes have been
replaced by automatic IT solutions. Process automation is an important
challenge in using information technology in the development of business
processes and their management. Benefits of those investments should
be evaluated from customer value, cost reduction, and real option
value points of view.
A Service-Oriented Architecture, SOA, has been developed for automating
many manual and paper-based activities of business processes. SOA
applications are particularly to respond to agility requirements in
business processes. Agility has in this context two meanings: a) To
enable fast process responsiveness in busy business environments,
and b) To facilitate fast changes in business process development
by providing incrementally automated activities to business processes
with standardized interfaces.
Practices for documentation for managing business processes have
developed from passive and separate documents to dynamic and flexible
systems for leveraging usage of information and knowledge for collaborative
group work. Old solutions of process documentation (which however
are still used in many organizations) include:
- Loose and fragmented paper documents
- Copied or printed manuals, procedure documents, record reports,
- Fragmented documents in information technology (IT) systems
- Semi-structured IT systems or intranets with variable share of Office
and HTML documents
In today's dynamic process environments stable and stiff documentation
structures are no more adequate but instead of that flexible and collaborative
information and communication arrangements are necessary. These may
be realized especially through modern information technology of social
In business environments there are lots of needs to share process
information and knowledge among managers, employees, and business
stakeholders. In order to manage situation, organizations have invested
in IT solutions. However the development and use of the IT solutions
has been problematic in practice. Many IT applications have made the
jobs of people more complex and difficult, rather than simplifying
their work. Effective use of modern information and communication
technology gives completely new possibilities especially strengthening
applications in the area of tacit knowledge that, in fact, covers
the most important biggest part of business knowledge. These new solutions
- Portals and portlettes
- Collaborative learning / group work and social networking infrastructures
Portal is a single, Web-based interface into the world of heterogeneous
and incompatible information and knowledge sources distributed across
the telecommunication network. Negative point is that portals are
rather complex and expensive investments and therefore suitable primarily
for big organizations.
Modern Web-operated social networking applications are simple and
cheap solutions. Their strengths include customizable applications
that allow process groups to work simultaneously on sharing individual
knowledge and to create new mutual knowledge inside and globally outside
It is essential from the business process management's point of view
to facilitate to combine explicit performance information measured/monitored
from the processes with the tacit understanding of the business as
a whole by the business leaders.
Process performance evaluation and
Process performance is considered both from strategic and from operational
point of view. Strategic performance management of processes is related
to the whole organization's business success and consists of vision-
and strategy-based measures (e.g. as described with balanced strategy
card methodology) and evaluations of the overall process performance
in the whole organization. Needs of operational process performance
measures for daily management are focused on diagnostics and analysis
for corrective and preventive actions. For those purposes there are
effective and efficient monitoring and analyzing procedures.
Overall process performance is a fuzzy concept. Process performance
evaluation consists of strategic assessment of the whole business
performance (process network) adhering especially to performance excellence
models (quality awards criteria), and operational assessment of individual
processes by using process audits according to the general ISO 19011
auditing standard (figure 4). Assessment results are useful both for
company-internal process improvement towards business excellence and
quality assurance for customers' confidence.
Figure 4. Presentation of the results of the process audits
Process performance improvement is carried out according to a systematic
methodology including both breakthrough and incremental continual
improvement according to the methodology described e.g. in the ISO
9004 standard. Also benchmarking methodology is used in this context.
A strategic objective for the organization is the achievement of
continual improvement to improve performance and benefit to interested
parties. That is done by improving business process performance. There
are two fundamental approaches for improvement activity based on business
processes as defined e.g. by the ISO 9004 standard according to the
a) Strategic breakthrough projects which lead to revision of existing
processes or the implementation of new processes usually carried out
by cross-functional teams outside routine operations.
b) Step continual improvements made by natural work teams within existing
processes, e.g. using "Probel" problem eliminating practice.
ISO 9004 standard and performance excellence models provide ideas
and guidance for improving performance of business processes.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) provides comprehensive
non-proprietary informative material for improving business processes
particularly for high quality IT services provision. The library consists
of best practices for service strategies, service design, service
introduction, service operation, and continuous service improvement.
In details practices cover:
- Service level management
- Incident management
- Problem management
- Change management
- Disaster recovery planning / Service continuity management
- Helpdesk / Service desk
- Release management
- Configuration management
- Capacity management
- Financial management
- Availability management
- Security management
In addition to ITIL, another reference for developing and improving
business processes is eTOM, Enhanced Telecom Operations Map. The eTOM
is a guidebook particularly for telecommunications industry. However,
it may be used as reference material also for other industries. eTOM
describes the full scope of business processes required by a service
provider and defines key elements and how they interact.
Comprehensive enhancement of a business
The ultimate goal of the process management is to ensure controlled
and continually enhanced business performance. Mental framework of
a learning organization provides a good model for a deep understanding
and effective development of the process management as a company-wide
issue (figure 5). The framework covers both running the current business
("Domain of action") and improving the overall business
performance ("Domain of change"). Domain of the current
business actions consists of guiding ideas and principles, managerial
tools and methodology, and managerial infrastructure for process management,
which are, in fact, the cornerstones for a consistent and successful
business establishment. Domain of change aims at changing the way
to act, or in other words changing business processes and their management
practices. That includes sensibility to new awareness, changes in
attitudes and beliefs, and training and education for new skills and
Figure 5. Mental framework of a learning organization for developing
an integrated process management approach. Domain of action: running
the current business, domain of change: enhancing the business performance
Wide experiences prove that process management is an incredibly simple
thing, but its implementation seems very difficult in practice because
it always puts a strain on the renewals in organization's leadership.
This is very often possible to happen genuinely only through real
business crises. Development of the business processes and their management
is a long-term effort and should take into account realities of business
environments in question.
1. Anttila J and Vakkuri J: ISO 9000 for the creative leader, Sonera
Corporation, Helsinki 2001
2. Rummler G and Brace A: Improving performance, Jossey-Brass Publishers,
3. Senge P, Roberts C and Ross B. Kleiner A: The Fifth Discipline
Fieldbook, Nicholas Brealey Publishing Limited, London 1995
4. R D Stacey (Winter 2002/2003): Organizations as complex responsive
processes of relating. Journal of Innovative Management Vol. 8, No.
2, Salem USA
5. Holopainen S, Lillrank P and Paavola T: Linking IT to business,
Studentlitteratur, Stockholm 2001
6. ISO: ISO 9000 Quality management systems, ISO, Geneve 2000
7. ITIL: Information Technology Infrastructure Library, http://www.itil.co.uk
8. eTOM: The enhanced Telecom Operations Map, http://www.tmforum.org/browse.aspx?catID=1647
[This material has
been presented in different forms in different seminars or conferences,
e.g. in St.Petersburg, Russia 1998 (several seminars); Riga, Latvia
1998; Tallukka, Finland 2000; Kuopio, Finland 2001; Istanbul, Turkey
2001; Ostrava, Czech Republic 2002; Mumbai and New Delhi, India 2003;
and Tallinn, Estonia 2000 and 2003]